Duissenova T.K. "In the Republic of Kazakhstan will be a transition from social protection and social progress. "Informational Agency «Bnews»", 17.10.2013
By 2016, the share of productive employment in the total number of self-employed population is expected to increase to 64.5%. About it in an interview BNews.kz Minister of Labor and Social Protection Tamara Duissenova.
Meanwhile, the head of the department noted that some representatives of the poor tend to get out of a difficult situation mainly due to state aid and support.
- How much do you think actively and proactively our society as it is self-interest in an effort to improve their welfare?
On the initiative and interest of the population, seeking to improve their well-being can be judged primarily as/increase labor participation and employment. In this respect it should be noted the steady growth of economic activity and employment inherent in Kazakhstan's labor market. Thus, the employment rate in 2001 was 89.6%, in 2005 -91.9%, 2010 - 94.2% and in 2012 - 94.7%.
Grows and the number of participants in active programs to improve incomes through productive employment. For example, participants in employment Roadmap 2020 for the integration of productive employment in the self-employed, unemployed, youth and other members of the target population have become the order of 74 thousand people.
On the growth and activity indicates the growing importance of wages for welfare. In the first quarter of this year, its share in income amounted to 80.6%. (For comparison: in 2005 - 76.9%, in 2010 - 80.9%).
Unfortunately, the observed facts and social infantilism. In some cases, well-being is not associated with difficulty, and with the ability to "make money out of thin air", "work less but get more". Conserved momentum representations about the paternalistic role of the state - some representatives of the poor tend to get out of a difficult situation mainly due to state aid and support. It should be noted that the proportion of bidders decreases. So, if the introduction of targeted social assistance (2003) its recipients were 859.8 thousand people with incomes below the poverty line in the past year targeted social assistance was assigned 97.3 thousand people.
Gaining support active government support measures. Implemented a strategic shift... "from social security to social progress", according to which the targeted social assistance payments and other social benefits to citizens with low incomes with the obligation to participate in programs to promote employment, social adaptation and activation.
In the current year due to this kind of social assistance is implemented on a pilot basis in Akmola, East Kazakhstan and Zhambyl regions. According to the results of its pilot expected full implementation throughout Kazakhstan. These circumstances allow me to speak to a fairly high level of activity Kazakhs sense of well-being directly dependent on the development and realization of individual potential. I believe that this trend will continue in the context of social modernization, which, combined with state social guarantees and increasing social responsibility of business will be the key to improving the standard of living.
- The best means in an effort to equalize incomes, as history has shown, is go to the Universal Society of Labour. At what stage in the movement of labor to the Universal Society of Kazakh society is now, in your opinion?
I cannot agree with the wording of the question. First, because egalitarianism cannot be and is not to create a society of universal labor. As noted by the head of state, social modernization in Kazakhstan... should be primarily aimed at improving the quality of life for all Kazakhs, reducing the number of poor and prevent social exclusion."
Thus the wide provision of public goods must be balanced with economic progress and is based on the "introduction of a new motivation to work and well-being... high personal responsibility and business partner interaction of all the subjects of labor relations with the state".
Secondly, the pursuit of absolute equality in terms of "equalizing income" does not correspond to the social nature; it is utopian and ignores objective distinction of people according to their abilities, capabilities and contribution to social wealth. These differences, as evidenced by the international practice, are the basis of the known income inequality.
Another thing is that in the social state, which is proclaimed and in Kazakhstan, everyone is guaranteed and should be given equal opportunities and conditions for the development of its potential and its creative application.
As for the stages of transition to Universal Society of Labour, I believe that at the present time to do the necessary conditions: Strategic objectives are defined, have the necessary resources to implement them, including human, the country maintains social stability and social harmony. With the necessary conditions, today we practically implement the tasks foreseen for the period until 2020.
- Which group of people is the most vulnerable and in need of protection of the state?
Socially vulnerable categories of citizens are those who "have " or "have " alone cannot provide the necessary conditions for their livelihoods.
Children require special attention. They cannot do much for your well-being and development, and therefore, when we - parents and society as a whole is responsible for what, who will be our children, what would be the future of the country. Not accidentally children's issues included among national priorities.
- What measures will be taken to a more effective use of the various economic sectors in the self-employed?
According to the statistics, in the country of about 2.7 million people are self-employed. The vast majority of self-employed is not competitive in the labor market, employing unproductive labor, not bringing enough income for a comfortable existence.
"So, today, it is important to implement measures aimed at incorporating the self-employed in the real economy", - said the Head of State in his keynote paper " Social modernization of Kazakhstan: Twenty Steps to Universal Society of Labour ."
According to the updated accounting procedure self-employed in the Republic of Kazakhstan allocated into two groups: the "productive employment" and "unproductive busy". However, about 1.1 million attributed to unproductive busy. This - unregistered independent workers, persons engaged in private farming production of goods only for their own consumption, and unpaid family workers.
To change their status, the formalization of labor relations and the promotion of productive employment within RE provided annually to increase the share of self-employed in the composition of persons covered by the measures of state support (from 4% in 2013 to 7.1% - in 2015).
A significant number of self-employed, provided training is planned to involve in the implementation of industrial projects. As a result, by 2016 the share of productive employment in the total number of self-employed population is expected to increase to 64.5 %.
- Do you think that the introduction of compulsory taxation and pension contributions for the self-employed in 2017 will not be successful due to the fact that self-employed income - at survival?
Introduction of a requirement for mandatory participation in the pension system persons who have received the status of self-employed and the expected change in the order of payment of contributions (contributions will be paid on the whole amount of income declared by the self-employed) are dictated by the objective need and desire to create sufficient pension savings.
Currently, the majority of self-employed persons pay pension contributions within the permitted minimum, i.e. 10% of the minimum wage. In the year, so paid no more than 1.2 times the minimum wage (about 23 thousand KZT standards this year).
For 35 years, the total amount of savings depositor will be an amount equal to roughly 42 times the minimum wage. Such savings will be enough to pay pensions for 3.5 years.
In other words, if you save the current terms, self-employed when they reach retirement age will be able to rely only on social security benefits in old age, no more than half of the subsistence minimum.
Aware of the need to introduce a new procedure for payment of pension contributions, we proceeded from the fact that its implementation will be carried out simultaneously with the increase of productive employment and the growth of self-employment income.
- One of the most dramatic consequences of youth unemployment is the "brain drain" - the departure of the most talented young people in Kazakhstan. As the country to avoid such losses?
Despite the reduction in the number of young immigrants (in 2009 the number of emigrants aged 19-28 years was 9.8 thousand people, in 2011 - 8.0 million) associated with this loss of human capital are of serious concern.
However, it seems that, along with unemployment (by the way, youth unemployment for several years below the level of unemployment in the whole country) should be borne in mind, and other causes of migration. Do not rule out the influence of the difficulties associated with the adaptation of the workplace after graduation, dissatisfaction with conditions and pay levels, and housing.
Along with this migration, including the migration of young people - a characteristic feature of the modern global world, which is inherent not only Kazakhstan, but also most other developed countries. Realizing the objective nature of migration processes, we strive to direct migration management to maintain a favorable demographic situation, national unity and human development.
I believe that provided social modernization measures to increase the availability and improve the quality of vocational education, the promotion of productive employment, housing programs and social support for young families inherent in our society, social stability will minimize the so-called "brain drain".
- Scientific and technical progress implies the disappearance of some specialties, respectively, the release of jobs - to replace the ten employees will come one. Where other workers have to leave?
You are right in the sense that for certain types of technical modernization of production can lead to a reduction in the demand for labor. However, innovative development is accompanied by changes in the structure and after production. There will be new kinds of production, significantly expand the scope of services will require a high level of training. All this will undoubtedly lead to an increase in demand in the labor market.
Practically, today to prevent rising unemployment due to the changing needs of employers, the following measures.
The Ministry, together with local authorities monitors layoffs during reductions in production and, with the involvement of employers, decides on their employment opportunities.
In turn, employers are taking steps to transfer the employee to another job if his or her consent, and if there are obligations in the collective agreement, to retrain their own funds for new professions and specialties needed by the enterprise.
Of employees/their representatives requires inclusion of appropriate provisions in the collective agreement and labor, willingness to improve skills and training, agreed to shift activities and classes are offered jobs.
- Does the given circumstance Roadmap employment 2020 with training?
One of the features is RE issues of employment, taking into account the communication training and production. This is most clearly manifested in the third direction Roadmap "Promoting employment through training and relocation within the needs of the employer". Stipulated in these measures focus on training, migration in terms of economic growth and promote employment paired with the real needs of the labor market. Self-employed, low-income and unemployed people to provide services to promote employment for existing jobs as well as jobs created within Agribusiness Program in 2020, and other public sector programs and private sector initiatives.
- Is there currently an objective forecast of the specialists in the various sectors of the economy in the near future?
Managing labor market is aimed, as you know, to balance the labor market. To do this, first of all projected balance of labor resources, assigning the needs of a workforce with opportunities to meet them.
In accordance with the request of the President, voiced in the article "Social modernization of Kazakhstan: Twenty Steps to a society of universal labor", starting in 2014, will ensure the development of five-year forecasts for the labor market.
There are currently Ministry has developed and adopted a methodology for determining staffing requirements in the context of professions, industries and regions.
Along with traditional mechanisms forecasting (statistical observations, reports and requests employers; plans to implement regional and national programs, issuing professional schools) on the initiative and guidelines used MLSP compiled map of employment.
Maps employment developed by local authorities in the medium term (two to three years by year (in terms of regions, cities of regional importance, regions, cities and the capital) and involve Vertical employment district map drawn up on the basis of rural (aul) districts map busy town of regional significance - on the basis of information of the authorized bodies, akim village districts; map employment areas, the city of republican status, capital, compiled on the basis of information of the authorized bodies, akim's cities and regions.
According to the structure of employment card consists of several sections that reflect the needs, sources and balance of labor resources. On the basis of fixed and monitor the situation on the labor market development plans specified professional education plan to create new jobs, increasing the territorial mobility of labor resources.
At the national level, based on a set of monitoring and analysis of the situation on the labor market: an estimation of efficiency of public services in the field of employment, identifies regions with the tense situation on the labor market, measures are being taken to correct them; make the necessary adjustments to the implementation of national and regional programs in order to meet the production needs of the labor force and increase the level of productive employment.
Significant role in this is the solution to improve the quality of labor resources and bringing the content and structure of vocational education in line with labor market needs.
- Do you see an alternative to raising the retirement age for women to 63 years? How, in your opinion, make the most optimal for the transition? For example, set this transition for all professions?
In the world of different variants of raising the retirement age: in some countries, this is one stage, in others - held for 5-10 years or more. The necessity of such a step in most countries is associated with increased overall survival, the aging population and increasing burden on the working population.
In our country, raising the retirement age due to a decrease of the seniority accumulated before January 1, 1998, and a corresponding reduction in pension payments from the state budget. While women tend to have relatively little work experience in connection with the finding on leave on the birth and childcare.
Already in the last year of full-time did not have 12% of women applying for a pension, by 2018 it will not have all the women.
In such circumstances, become important components funded pension. It must compensate for the decrease of cumulative pension and the pension level is not below world standards.
However, the size of pension savings in women slim. Average size of pension savings per participant at the beginning of 2013 amounted to 376 thousand KZT, including accumulation men 439 thousand, 325 thousand women.
Backlog of pension accumulations women for two reasons:
1) Relatively less experience of participation in pension system in connection with the finding on maternity leave and earlier than men of retirement age (58 and 63 years, respectively);
2) Gender differences in pay. In the past five years, for example, the average monthly wage of women in the economy as a whole ranged from 66 to 68 % of the average male wage.
If in addition we take into account that the period of life after retirement in women (20.84 years) is much greater than in men (12.99 years), the possibility of an adequate pension women under the circumstances is unlikely.
Actuarial estimates indicate that if the current parameters of the pension system replacement rate of previous funded pension income will be less than five percent by 2020, and in the next two decades will rise only to 6.5 - 7.2 percent, whereas by the International Standards Labour Organization, it must be not less than 40 %.
In this situation, raising the retirement age, subject to available employment opportunities for older people, will increase the length of participation in the pension system and lead to an increase in pension savings.
Taking into account the international experience, the establishment of a new retirement age will be implemented in stages between 2018 and 2028.
As for the differentiation of the transition conditions and save for certain categories of women more opportunities for early retirement, the following should be noted.
In seniority counted during nonworking mothers care for young children, but not longer than until every child is 3 years, within 12 years in total.
For participating NPCs (including women working in hazardous conditions) for the adequacy of pension savings, will retain the right to appointment of pension payments from NPCs in 50 years, in case of purchase of the annuity.
For women who have seniority prior to 1 January 1998, will retain the right to early retirement: '53 in women who have had (have adopted, adopt) 5 or more children and raised them to the age of eight, in 45 years, with the general experience of not less than 20 years , women living in areas of extreme risk and maximum radiation of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, at least 5 years.
In connection with the increase in the retirement age provided active support additional measures to promote employment and motherhood older women.
For this practice will be continued job quotas for persons over 50 years, and the employability of women approaching retirement age on social workplaces; taken to actively promote employment within RE and other strategic government programs.
As part of the Roadmap employment 2020 priority for participation in it given to women, persons older than 50 years before reaching retirement age, especially among rural residents.
Special Resolution of the Government of the May 14, 2013 № 478 approved the Comprehensive Plan to promote the employment of persons older than 50 years (50 + initiative).
It aims to promote the employment of people approaching retirement age and includes employment activities at workplaces to be created in the ongoing government and industry programs.
Through social dialogue and corporate social responsibility amends the General, industry, regional agreements, collective agreements regarding maintenance of employment and preservation of jobs, decent working conditions, making training programs and mobility.
To strengthen safeguards aimed at eliminating discrimination in employment and maintaining employment for persons nearing retirement age in amendments to the Labour Code (art. 56, para 2-1). Introduced penalties for posting ads on job requirements discriminatory (restrictions on age and sex) (Article 25, paragraph 2-1).
Along with this, The President of Republic of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev said in his address to the nation on pension reform from 07.06.2013 instructed to take additional measures to support women to increase their retirement savings.
For this purpose, first, provides an increase in mandatory pension contributions by 5%, so that employers will transfer to the accounts of its employees 15% of payroll.
Secondly, for those working in hazardous conditions, introduced compulsory professional pension contributions in the amount of 5% of the salary (later assumed to increase it to 10%).
Third, in accordance with the instructions of the President Republic of Kazakhstan by the state on pension accounts of working women during their stay on parental leave until the child reaches the age of one year, will be credited to additional contributions.
With the result that the proposed conversion of the load on the employer does not increase, as contributions to occupational pension schemes will be attributed to the implementation of tax deductions for payments.
Such social support will not only increase women's retirement savings, but will also stimulate the growth of fertility.
In addition, it remains possible increase in pension contributions by participating in voluntary pension scheme. In this case, the accumulation can be formed both by employers and citizens directly.