System of social services is one of the most important components of the system of social protection of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The adoption in 2009 of the Law of RK "On special social services" allowed to start the modernization of the system and to ensure its de-monopolisation at the expense of wide application of PPP mechanisms, granting freedom of choice to citizens of social service organizations and the implementation of the principle of co-financing of the cost of the service recipients. The main measures are:
а) the determination of categories of citizens, entitled to the provision of special social services under the difficult situation and the criteria for their attribution to one or another category. There is no legislative base for the recognition of persons in a difficult life situation. It is possible to expand the service geography and growth recipients in need of state support, 40% compared to 2009, or from 73,0 up to 122 thousand people;
b) approval of the list of types of of special social services, available on free and paid basis and eligibility criteria. The list of guaranteed state social services include 6 types: social, socio-medical, socio-pedagogical, socio – psychological, socio-cultural, socio-labor, socio-legal, socio-economic.
These services can be provided on a paid basis for citizens not included in the categories of recipients of the guaranteed volume of special social services. Such opportunities each year, on average I take about 50 people.
c) the phased introduction of standards of rendering special social services and minimum standards of regular number of workers of medical and social institutions depending on the types of social service organizations. Today approved and implemented 6 standards of special social services:
standard of rendering special social services in the field of social protection of the population in the hospital;
standard of rendering special social services in the field of social protection of the population in the conditions of the equipment;
standard of rendering special social services in the field of social protection of the population in the conditions of rendering services at home;
standard of rendering special social services in the field of social protection of the population in conditions of temporary stay;
standard of rendering special social services to victims of trafficking;
standard of rendering special social services to victims of domestic violence.
The standards allowed the citizens to a full range of services regardless of their place of residence and organizations providing special social services.
d) gradual establishment of common tariffs of services provided by both public and private organizations. If in 2009 the cost of services provided in nursing homes for persons with neuropsychiatric diseases ranged from 1 to 164 tenge in Mangistau region by 3 781 tenge in Astana, today they are in these areas more than 3 thousand tenge, with the exception of expenditure on administrative services and heating.
Uniform tariffs also allowed to implement a mechanism of co-financing of services by persons who are on full state support. So, starting from 1 January 2016 persons who are on full state support, 70% of pensions and benefits direct to cover the costs of maintaining them. The main condition is that the amount of pensions, remaining in the hands of persons residing in nursing homes, should not be less than minimum pension, and the disabled – not below the subsistence minimum, set annually in the national budget of the respective year.
e) introduction of a normative justification for private sector participation in the provision of social services. In 2009 special social services had only 4 non-governmental organizations, by 2016, the number reached more than 100. They covered more than 6 thousand people. For the period 2008-2016 years total number of organizations providing special social services has increased from 592 to 1019 organizations, including:
- 110 stationary medical and social institutions: 50 residential homes for the elderly and disabled of General type, 40 psychoneurological houses-boarding schools, 2 boarding home for disabled children with disorders of the musculoskeletal system, 18 children's psychoneurological houses-boarding schools;
- 74 semi-permanent medico-social institutions: 53 offices of day stay for disabled children with psychoneurological pathologies and individuals older than 18 years with psychoneurological diseases under existing MSI 21 the rehabilitation center for disabled 1 and 2 groups, including children with disabilities;
- 25 Centers of social adaptation for persons without a certain residence, 17 offices night stay and 14 of the social services of the patrol;
- 704 offices in terms of home care: 141 Department of social help at home for disabled children and invalids older than 18 years with psychoneurological diseases, 301 Department of social help at home for elderly and disabled, 66 offices, home-based care mixed type, 196 services, home-based care (without branches);
- 106 non-governmental organizations. Annually on the implementation of state social order on providing special social services from the Republican budget it is allocated 1,2 billion tenge.
The implementation of these measures allowed:
- to liquidate turns in the children's psychoneurological house-boarding schools;
- align the cost of services and funding services in the regions;
- expand the reach of the citizens and to ensure the availability of services through the involvement of non-governmental sector for the provision of special social services;
- raise wages to social workers by 40% in relation to the size of 2015;
- the return of 626 children from orphanages into families and to employ in the labor market 693 mothers of these children.